THE BOTANICAL, MEDICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL, ETHNOLOGICAL INFORMATION ABOUT HERBS

ARALIA

 
You can see how serious Russians are about use of Aralia and other traditional herbs in official medicine by the translation of this Russian Pharmacopoeia Article.
 

Pharmacopoeia Article

Aralia is collected in spring or late fall, thoroughly cleaned of soil, cut into pieces and dried roots of wild Manchurian aralia tree (Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. (A. Mandshurica Rupr. Et maxim.) of the family of Araliaceae.

Appearance Indications

Solid Stock.

Solid of longitudinally split pieces of roots up to 8cm long and up to 3cm in diameter together with few small lateral roots. Roots are light-weight, longitudinally rugose, with heavily peeling cork. Bark is thin and easily separated from wood. Root fracture is splintery. Outside root color is brownish-gray; at fracture: whitish- or yellowish-gray. Odor is aromatic. Taste is slightly astringent and bitterish.

Mill Stock.

Pieces of roots of different forms passing through a 7mm sieve. Color is yellowish-gray, brownish-gray. Odor is aromatic. Taste is slightly astringent and bitterish.

Microscopy

On root cross cut is seen a layer of heavily peeling cork. Bark consists of parenchyma cells with thin walls, among which are located secretory ducts from 7 to 20m in diameter in the way of concentric belts. Parenchyma cells located around secretory ducts and medullary rays are filled with starch grains. Starch grains are simple and binate to octosyllabic. In the outer part of cork can be seen druses of calcium oxalate. Cork is separated from wood by a narrow layer of cambium. Wood is annular-vessel. Medullary rays are monostichous to pentastichous. After maceration, in the specimen are seen spiral and porous vessels with simple or marginate pores, fibrous tracheids and libriform fibers.

Qualitative Reactions

A stock analytical sample is pulverized down to the particle size passing through a 7mm sieve. About 1 grams of mill stock is put into a 50ml flask, then add 20ml of methyl alcohol and boil on water bath (bath temperature: 80-85C) with a reflux condenser for 1 hour; 0.02ml of 5min-settled extract is applied with the help of a micropipette on the starting line of chromatographic 20 by 20cm plate with a fixed layer of coarse, macroporous silica gel. For a reference spot is applied 0.01ml of 0.6% solution of saparal* in methyl alcohol (50kg). In 10 minutes, the plate is put into a chamber with a mixture of solvents: chloroform-methyl alcohol-water (61:32:7) and chromatograph by an ascending method. When solvent front reaches the plate end, it is taken out of the chamber, dried in air for 10 minutes, sprinkled with a 20% solution of sulfuric acid and heat in a drying cabinet at 105C for 10 minutes.

On the plate must appear spots of cherry color on the level of aralozide spots in saparal. It is allowed to have additional spots both of cherry and other colors.

* transliterated from Russian

Notes:

1. Sorbent Preparation:

2kg of white granular, coarse, macroporous silica gel (State Standard (GOST) 3956-76), pulverized in a ball mill for 15 hours, is placed into a 10-liter bottle, then add 3 liters of diluted hydrocarbon acid and equal quantity of water, thoroughly shake and leave for 15-20 hours. Then water is added almost up to the bottle neck, again shake and in 7 hours the liquid is drained. To rinse silica gel, into the bottle is added about 8 liters of water, shake and in 7 hours the clarified liquid is drained. Rinsing of silica gel is thus repeated about 10 times (up to negative reaction to chlorides). To rinsed silica gel is again added water almost up to bottle neck, thoroughly shake and allow it to settle for 20 minutes. The still cloudy liquid is carefully drained with the help of a siphon into a crystallizer settle for 2 hours and clarified liquid is drained. Residue is dried in air for 15-20 hours and then in a drying cabinet at 105-110C for 7 hours.

2. Preparation of a Chromatographic Plate:

6 grams of resultant silica gel is mixed with 0.6 grams of calcium sulfate (pure for analysis), grind in a mortar with gradual addition of 17ml of water, thoroughly mix and apply by an even layer on a 20 by 20cm glass plate, which is then dried in a strictly horizontal position in air for 24 hours or in a drying cabinet at 120-140C for 30-40 minutes.

3. Preparation of a 20% Acid Solution:

To 100ml of water is carefully added, while constantly mixing, 14ml of concentrated sulfuric acid.

4. Preparation of 0.6% Solution of Saparal in Methyl Alcohol:

0.06 grams of saparal (ON* 42-1924-82) is dissolved in 10ml of methyl alcohol.

Numerical Indicators

Solid Stock

Sums of aralozides in terms of ammonium salt of aralozides A, B, and C with average molecular mass: not less than 5%; moisture content: not more than 14%; ash content: not more than 7%; root pieces >8cm long: not more than 15%; root pieces >3cm in diameter: not more than 15%; fracture-blackened roots: not more than 4%; organic admixture: not more than 1%; mineral admixture: not more than 1%.

Mill Stock:

Sums of aralozides in terms of ammonium salt of aralozides A, B, and C with average molecular mass: not less than 5%; moisture content: not more than 14%; ash content: not more than 7%; fracture-blackened roots: not more than 4%; particles that cannot pass through a 7mm sieve: not more than 15%; particles passing through a 0.25mm sieve: not more than 10%; organic admixture: not more than 1%; mineral admixture: not more than 1%.

Quantitative Determination

A stock analytical sample is pulverized down to particle size passing through a 1mm sieve.
About 5 grams (weighed sample) of mill stock is placed into a paper filter cartridge and immerse into a Sohxlet apparatus with working volume of 150-200ml. Into a receiving flask is filled 250ml of methyl alcohol, 70ml of 50% solution of sulfuric acid and extract on boiling water bath for 7 hours. The resultant mixture in the flask is diluted with water by 50% and cool under running tap water for 10 minutes. The precipitated residue is filtered off through a glass filter II?*16 of diameter <50mm. The first portion is filtered off without vacuum, then, when separation of filtrate almost stops, carefully switch on vacuum and filter the remainder. Residue on filter is rinsed with water (1000ml), stirring it up on filter 2 or 3 times up to neutral reaction on general-purpose, indicator paper and then dry a little without switching vacuum off. From the funnel the residue is quantitatively transferred 50ml of hot mixture of methyl and isobutyl alcohol (1:1.5) into a 100ml glass. Resultant solution is potentiometrically titrated by a solution of sodium hydroxide (0.1mol/liter) in a mixture of methyl alcohol and benzene. During titrating there is noted the quantity of titrant used for brining pH of tested solution up to 7.0.
     Reference test is carried out simultaneously.
     Titrating data processing is done graphically.
Content of aralozides sums in terms of ammonium salt of aralozides A, B and C with average molecular mass, absolutely dry stock in percentage terms (X) should be computed from the formula:

               0.10122 (V - V1 - V2) 100 ?
     X = ------------------------------------------
                           m (100 - W)

where:  
0,10422
- Quantity of ammonium salts of aralozides corresponding to 1ml of sodium hydroxide solution (0.1mol/liter) in grams;
V
- Volume of sodium hydroxide solution (0.1mol/liter) used for sample titrating in milliliters;
V1
- Volume of sodium hydroxide solution (0.1mol/liter) used for bringing pH titrated solution up to 7.0 in milliliters;
V2
- Volume of sodium hydroxide solution (0.1mol/liter) used for reference sample titrating in milliliters;
m
- Stock mass in grams;
W
- Mass loss during stock drying in percentage terms.

 

 

 

 

Packing

Solid stock is packed in fabric bales of not more than 50kg net weight or in fabric or flax-jute-hemp bags of not more than 25kg net weight; mill stock is packed in fabric or flax-jute-hemp bags of not more than 25kg net weight.

Shelf Life: 3 years.

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